• Older Dryas (Two Creekan type locality) woodland in the Lake Huron area

• Pre-Clovis mastodon hunters


• Younger Dryas wetlands from Calumet County, WI • Late Holocene charcoal record of amplified aridity ca. AD 1290 Abundant deposition of plant macrofossils was found in pond sediment and peat exposed at a farm-pond on the Schneider Farm, Calumet Co., east-central Wisconsin (Photo). Stratigraphy of a 15-m section yields the Holocene history of this area starting from a basal till unit dated ca. 14,000 years ago (Chilton Member till). Over 180 specimens of wood were collected in 2005 along with charcoal from the 2 m topsoil gyttja underlying brown clay.


• Two Creekan-age wood in the southern Wisconsin

• Within ca. 1 km of the Schaefer Mastodon site


  • Preboreal forest bed 
  • Early Holocene wetlands in west-central IL

Samples from the Markman peat mine in Whiteside Co., IL, were collected for us by Prof. A.E. Bettis of the University of Iowa in 2004 (his original field designation was "IL-MP"). Collected specimens had less than 50 rings and were so badly decayed that they could not be crossdated. However, there could be more and better-preserved wood at that location. 


• Post-glacial wetlands of southern Lake Superior from 8200 to 6250 cal Yrs BP

• The Houghton Low Stage of the Lake Superior


• Mid Holocene wetland forest

This farm is located west of the city of Kenosha and only 1.4 km north of the Paris Farms site. Local archaeologist Dave Wasion helped guide us to the site. We excavated about 20 specimens of young stems and roots of larch from the peat with a number of tree rings ranging from 17 to 55. The wood is dated ca. 7700-7950 Cal Yrs BP.

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