• Early Holocene drown forest in Lake Huron • Nipissing transgression in the northern Lake Huron Basin This is one of the Early Holocene drowned forest locations clustering on the eastern edge of the Straights of Mackinac, a narrow waterway connecting Lake Michigan and Lake Huron. The site was located and sampled with help of deep-water divers led by Captain Luke Clyburn. White-cedar fast growing and young trees are dated to 8360-9765 Cal Yrs BP.


• Early Holocene submerged forest bed in Lake Huron This is one of the Mid Holocene drowned forest locations clustering near the northern Michigan shores on Lake Huron. Stumps were found at 20-25 feet of water about 30 miles north of Thunder Bay. The site was located and sampled in 2012 with the help of NOAA divers led by Captain Luke Clyburn. One 51-ring sample of red pine was dated with radiocarbon to ca. 8370-8410 Cal Yrs BP. This is the oldest submerged forest bed found in Lake Huron so far.


Samples collected from the Old Bridge site along the Nemaha River in eastern Nebraska with Prof. Art Bettis (Univ Iowa) in June 2004. Samples are likely from the lower unit, the Early Gunder Member.


  • Preboreal forest bed 
  • Early Holocene wetlands in west-central IL

Samples from the Markman peat mine in Whiteside Co., IL, were collected for us by Prof. A.E. Bettis of the University of Iowa in 2004 (his original field designation was "IL-MP"). Collected specimens had less than 50 rings and were so badly decayed that they could not be crossdated. However, there could be more and better-preserved wood at that location. 


• Mid Holocene riparian forest

• Younger Dryas riparian forest

• No-analog vegetation from central Illinois


• Holocene riparian forest at the Oneida watershed, NY

• Records of extreme flooding at Fish Creek, NY


• Mid Holocene wetland forest

This farm is located west of the city of Kenosha and only 1.4 km north of the Paris Farms site. Local archaeologist Dave Wasion helped guide us to the site. We excavated about 20 specimens of young stems and roots of larch from the peat with a number of tree rings ranging from 17 to 55. The wood is dated ca. 7700-7950 Cal Yrs BP.


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