• Older Dryas (Two Creekan type locality) woodland in the Lake Huron area

• Pre-Clovis mastodon hunters


• Younger Dryas wetlands from Calumet County, WI • Late Holocene charcoal record of amplified aridity ca. AD 1290 Abundant deposition of plant macrofossils was found in pond sediment and peat exposed at a farm-pond on the Schneider Farm, Calumet Co., east-central Wisconsin (Photo). Stratigraphy of a 15-m section yields the Holocene history of this area starting from a basal till unit dated ca. 14,000 years ago (Chilton Member till). Over 180 specimens of wood were collected in 2005 along with charcoal from the 2 m topsoil gyttja underlying brown clay.


• Two Creekan-age wood in the southern Wisconsin

• Within ca. 1 km of the Schaefer Mastodon site


  • Preboreal forest bed 
  • Early Holocene wetlands in west-central IL

Samples from the Markman peat mine in Whiteside Co., IL, were collected for us by Prof. A.E. Bettis of the University of Iowa in 2004 (his original field designation was "IL-MP"). Collected specimens had less than 50 rings and were so badly decayed that they could not be crossdated. However, there could be more and better-preserved wood at that location. 


• Post Two Creekan lowland forest in the Green Bay area

• Lake Oshkosh shoreline transition


  • Early Two Creekan forest

Several samples of spruce from the Jorgensen Farm in Waushara Co., WI were collected with help of Dr. William Mode at UW-Oshkosh. Crossdated tree-ring series of this site contributed to a 510-year composite tree-ring record of Green Bay area overlapping tree rings from five locations dated to the Older Dryas (see plot below).


• Post-glacial wetlands of southern Lake Superior from 8200 to 6250 cal Yrs BP

• The Houghton Low Stage of the Lake Superior


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